It was about lunchtime on Jan. 28 when managers at Columbia’s IBM service center started calling employees into meeting rooms and offices; managers read from a script informing the employees that their jobs were gone.
The company’s January layoffs, in which scores of IBM’s U.S. employees reportedly lost their jobs, hardly came as a surprise to people who had followed the company in the news. But that didn’t make the local layoffs any easier to swallow.
“It was like a mortuary — half live bodies, half dying,” said a laid-off Columbia IBM employee who spoke on condition of anonymity. “Very tense, very sad.” ...
The Columbia center at 2810 Lemone Industrial Blvd. was so battered by the January layoffs that the Department of Economic Development, which already has paid millions in incentives to Big Blue, has suspended the company’s last remaining incentive. ...
Susan said the company has 453 full-time employees at its Columbia service center, 112 fewer than it had in June of last year, according to documents the Tribune received through an open records request. Days after the layoffs, the department had a legal team review the company’s employment reports to see whether IBM remained eligible for the incentives. ...
To date, the state has doled out $4.1 million for the BUILD bond, $3.9 million for the Missouri Quality Jobs program and $1.71 million for training employees, Susan said. The BUILD incentive is the only ongoing state incentive for IBM’s Columbia service center. BUILD is a bond program designed to offset a company’s costs for things such as equipment and infrastructure.
IBM spokesman Clint Roswell would not comment on the numbers IBM submitted to the state, and he described the self-reported figures as “rumors and speculation.”
“I’m telling you quite directly that IBM has fulfilled its obligation to the state,” he said. “IBM has fulfilled its obligations to the state in regards to training, staffing and reporting. I’m not going to get into numbers.”
Even after the state revealed that employment numbers at IBM had fallen so dramatically that the Department of Economic Development had suspended one of its incentives to the company, Big Blue adamantly denied the claims.
IBM spokesman Clint Roswell on Monday continued to dispute the job losses at the Columbia service center. He claimed company officials were not aware of any suspended incentives from the state.
“IBM has not been notified by the state nor has an ongoing incentive program been suspended,” he said in an email. “IBM has met all its obligations to the state.”
An April 22 letter from the state to IBM’s Stephen Dodd, however, tells a different story.
In the letter, Missouri Development Finance Board Executive Director Robert Miserez said the Business Use Incentives for Large-Scale Development program agreement established that if IBM’s number of employees fell below 500, the company’s BUILD eligibility would be suspended.
IBM “is not entitled to receive any further tax credits until the number of jobs at the Columbia facility equals at least 500,” the letter said. ...
Documents from the state show that IBM’s Columbia service center employed 153 fewer people on March 31 than it did in January 2014.
Roswell did not return multiple phone calls Monday afternoon and Tuesday morning, but he did send an email to the Tribune. “I was in contact this morning with the person to whom the letter posted on your website was addressed and, as of this morning, he has yet to receive it,” he wrote.
After January’s reported layoffs at IBM, including at Columbia’s service center, the Department of Economic Development’s legal team started reviewing IBM’s incentive contracts to see whether IBM remained eligible for bonds and tax breaks.
James Chapdelaine, director of the Columbia service center, said in a signed letter to the state on April 15 that the center employed 453 full-time workers as of March 31.
When asked about the employment numbers for a previous Tribune story, Roswell said he did not know where those numbers came from and called them “rumors and speculation.” ...
“It’s disappointing because we keep getting strung along here by being told by IBM that, ‘We’re well on our way’” to creating 800 jobs, Skala said. “All of this conversation leads people to believe they were achieving their goals while, all the while, they weren’t.”
“If you’re a country, as China is, of 1.3 billion people, you would want an IT industry as well,” she told the crowd at the China Development Forum, a government-sponsored event. “I think some firms find that perhaps frightening. We, though, at IBM … find that to be a great opportunity.” ...
Rometty needs a great opportunity. As the CEO of IBM since 2012, she has spent her more than 30-year career at the company watching it slowly shed the hardware, heft, and influence that earned it the “Big Blue” moniker. ...
Faced with the decline and potential loss of China as a market, IBM has reacted by shifting to a strategy of trading technology for access. Over the past six months, the company has signed a spate of deals to allow local Chinese rivals to sell IBM products and technologies themselves. Among other things, it has handed software and hardware blueprints to local vendors, allowing them to produce a version of the leading-edge IBM Power8 processor and build and sell servers that compete with similar IBM products. It is letting Chinese rival Inspur bundle IBM database software with the local company’s servers, and it looks ready to do similar deals with software rivals like Yonyou. In short, the company is giving rival businesses access to technologies that are, for IBM, its competitive advantage. ...
So is Rometty betting that the future value of the Chinese market to IBM will exceed the value of the rest of the world combined? If so, then it makes sense for the company to do anything possible to retain a foothold in China. But that seems very unlikely, and very unwise.
If you hold stock in IBM, you’ll probably have a long list of questions at the next shareholders’ meeting: How long can IBM count on retaining that access to China, and to what end? How much longer can IBM rely on winning sales in China by empowering local companies, and how long will it take before those companies realize they have what they need to shove IBM out the door? And how long then until those very same companies start competing and displacing IBM in emerging and high-growth markets around the world?
In return for access to a single — albeit huge — market, Rometty may well have sacrificed the company’s future. ...
IBM, for its part, is doubtless aware that any control over its intellectual property in China is tenuous at best and that long-term success in China depends on milking its stream of patents. But, as leadership and innovation expert Steve Denning has noted, IBM’s shift in focus away from innovation and toward earnings under Rometty’s predecessor compelled the company to make deep cuts in R&D. With the support of institutional shareholders, Rometty has continued the trend. ...
Cutting investment in innovation while potential rivals are doubling down on R&D suggests that IBM’s leadership remains more focused on shareholders than on innovation. Rometty must demonstrate either that IBM can deliver a stream of innovations that will make the emergence of technology transfer-enabled competitors irrelevant, or that China is worth more than the rest of the world combined. Otherwise, Rometty may be sacrificing the long-term viability of her company for a short-term opportunity in China.
Selected reader comments follow:
The high skilled visa programs provide a limited but necessary means for IBM to meet the near to medium term needs of its U.S. clients and our own business. The technology industry's shift to new, higher value growth areas such as cloud, analytics, mobile, security and social technologies is placing a greater premium on a new set of skills. These changes are exacerbating the skills shortage that we discussed with you during your 2013 visit to IBM's Dubuque center. ...
While we must continue to draw on the global talent pool for U.S. needs, IBM's use of high skilled visa programs can be clearly distinguished from other companies:
We bring foreign workers to the U.S. because those workers have specific profiles and expertise that we cannot source locally in a timely way to fulfill client contract requirements. We must use international talent if we are to succeed against foreign and domestic competitors. If we cannot bring the skills to the work in the U.S., then our clients may be forced to move the work to the skills, out of the U.S.
IBM does not make a practice of cutting positions in the U.S. and then replacing those same positions with either U.S. citizens or foreign visa holders. In fact, temporary visa-holders only account for some five percent of IBM's U.S. workforce, a figure that has been steady for a number of years. This sets IBM apart from other companies that have upwards of 90 percent of their U.S. workforce on visas. ...
7. Please provide me with a list of the job descriptions and locations for each of the approximately 5,800 petitions that IBM filed with USCIS for H-1B visas on April 1, 2015.
The location of specific job roles is business confidential but among the most in-demand technology roles IBM is striving to fill are: mobile application developers, data analytics experts, software developers, applications analysts, computer systems consultants, IT project leaders and project managers. While many of these job titles are well established in our industry, the work required and the skills expected of professionals ls in these roles have changed dramatically. ...
For longer-term talent needs, we must rely on America's education system. However, that system is not presently able to meet the demands of high-tech employers.
The bottom line is there are plenty of people here (USA) that have the talent or can gain the talent but we don't want to live 6 in a 3-room apartment or sell our souls. I just saw a proposed piece of legislation that will take steak and seafood off the list of staples that can be bought with food stamps. We are seeing the disintegration of the American way of life continue at an accelerated pace. There will be a reckoning... Let us eat spam... -Anonymous-
The resolution was fueled by IBM's shift to a cash-balance pension plan last year, which angered workers who discovered that the new plan would cut benefits for longer-service workers by 30% or more. After an employee uprising, which led to Senate hearings and government investigations, IBM in September allowed all employees 40 years old or older, and with at least 10 years of service, the choice of remaining in the old pension plan, bringing the number of employees with such an option to 65,000. ...
"The company says it needs to be competitive, yet what they are doing has provoked a very negative response from a large number of their own employees who are supposedly highly valued," said James Heard, chief executive of Proxy Monitor, a leading proxy-voting adviser that supported the resolution. "If you've upset this many of your employees, you haven't done your homework."
During the shareholders' meeting in Cleveland, IBM Chief Executive Louis V. Gerstner acknowledged that some IBM employees were upset but defended the new approach. "I know we have in this auditorium a group of very passionate employees who have strong opinions about the pension changes," he said. But he said other employees are "just as passionate in urging us to change the company even more." These other employees understand "that we must compete for talent and loyalty the same way our 'dot-com' technology competitors do -- more stock and cash upfront and fewer 'old fashioned' benefits like pensions, dependent care, long-term medical and adoption assistance." ...
Employee Complaints. Attending the meeting were about 100 IBM employees from 16 different work locations. Some complained that their views weren't fully heard. The meeting, which was scheduled to last until noon, ended a half-hour early. Just as U.S. Rep. Bernie Sanders, an Independent from Vermont who is an outspoken critic of IBM's new pension plan, stepped up to the microphone, IBM's Mr. Gerstner concluded the meeting. A spokeswoman for IBM later explained that there was a time parameter for the question-and-answer session and that Mr. Gerstner stuck to it.
Editor's note: The following is a photo I took of Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) speaking at the Alliance@IBM rally following the 2000 IBM Shareholder meeting:
Some workers left the rooms crying; others appeared shocked. This went on all day. As each employee received a call to go to a conference room, others in the office looked up sometimes with pained expressions. One IT worker recalls a co-worker mouthing "no" as he walked by on the way to a conference room.
What follows is a story of competing narratives about the restructuring of Disney's global IT operations of its parks and resorts division. But the focus is on the role of H-1B workers. Use of visa workers in a layoff is a public policy issue, particularly for Disney.
Disney CEO Bob Iger is one of eight co-chairs of the Partnership for a New American Economy, a leading group advocating for an increase in the H-1B visa cap. Last Friday, this partnership was a sponsor of an H-1B briefing at the U.S. Capitol for congressional staffers. The briefing was closed to the press.
One of the briefing documents handed out at the congressional forum made this claim: "H-1B workers complement - instead of displace - U.S. Workers." It explains that as employers use foreign workers to fill "more technical and low-level jobs, firms are able to expand" and allow U.S. workers "to assume managerial and leadership positions."
The document was obtained by Norman Matloff, a computer science professor at the University of California at Davis and a longtime critic of the H-1B program. He posted it on his blog. ...
From the perspective of five laid-off Disney IT workers, all of whom agreed to speak on the condition of anonymity, Disney cut well-paid and longtime staff members, some who had been previously singled out for excellence, as it shifted work to contractors. These contractors used foreign labor, mostly from India. The laid-off workers believe the primary motivation behind Disney's action was cost-cutting. ...
The use of H-1B workers to displace U.S. workers is getting more attention in Congress. In response to Southern California Edison's use of foreign labor, 10 U.S. senators recently asked three federal agencies to investigate H-1B use. But one agency, the U.S. Department of Labor, wrote back last week and told the lawmakers that large H-1B using firms "are not prohibited from displacing U.S. workers" as long as they meet certain conditions, such as paying each H-1B worker at least $60,000 a year.
I checked the numbers with Howard Silverblatt, senior index analyst at S.&P. Dow Jones Indices. He found that the last market colossus to tower over its competitors by a two-to-one ratio was IBM, which did it in three successive years: 1983, 1984 and 1985. “That was when PCs were new,” he said, “and just about everyone thought IBM would rule the world.”
Now it’s Apple’s world. Apple is the most widely held stock in American mutual fund portfolios. IBM, the former undisputed heavyweight champion, isn’t even in the running anymore. It ranks 62nd, according to a Morningstar analysis performed at my request. IBM is still an important company, but it is struggling. Investors judge it to be worth less than one-quarter of Apple’s market value today. What happened to IBM — how it became this small, in comparison with Apple — is worth remembering. ...
I had forgotten how imposing IBM once was. By some measures, it was vastly more important than Apple is today. Measured by market cap, for example, IBM accounted for a staggering 6.4 percent of the S.&.P. 500 in 1985, IBM’s peak year — making it 2.35 times the size of the second-biggest company of its day, Exxon. ...
With hindsight, it’s clear that IBM’s Olympian status was part of its problem. In the 1980s, at the height of its powers, it continued to come up with scientific breakthroughs and ultrafast computers, but its focus on its own product lines and customer service flagged. IBM “naïvely” handed over crucial parts of the computer business to companies like Microsoft and Intel, while its own profit margins began to erode, D. Quinn Mills, a professor at the Harvard Business School, has written.
Are Cost Cuts The New Share BuyBacks? Heading into the quarter IBM had about $6.3 billion left under its share buyback program. The company spent $1.2 billion on repurchases in Q1 2015, down from $8.2 billion in Q1 2014. Now that buybacks will have less impact on EPS than in prior periods, IBM may have found another lever - cost cuts. Two of the biggest cost items in Q1 2015 were SG&A ($5.4 billion) and research and development ($1.3 billion). Together they represented 34.0% of revenue, down from 34.5% in Q1 2014.
IBM's total expenses declined 13% Y/Y, outstripping the 12% decline in revenue. Due to expense reductions, income from operations only declined 5% Y/Y. If Rometty can continue to reduce expenses faster than revenue declines, it could help soften the blow of reduced share buybacks.
Conclusion: IBM currently trades at about 14x p/e despite the fact that net income was flat Y/Y. The shares are up about 2% post-earnings, which speaks more to investors' infatuation with the equity markets than IBM's business prospects. With declining revenue and stagnant earnings going forward, I see no compelling reason for investors to own the stock.
AWS is also profitable. It kept $265 million this quarter and it's on track to hit $1 billion in annual profits.
This gives concrete proof that Amazon is, by at least one measure, the biggest cloud computing infrastructure player of all.
IBM wants to dispute that. Last week it told Business Insider, when you combine all the things it calls a cloud on a trailing twelve-month basis, its cloud revenue is $7.7 billion.
But it also clarified that what IBM is selling "as-a-Service" is on track to do $3.8 billion. That's a more apples-to-apples comparison to the kind of cloud that Amazon sells.
IBM is well known for selling something called the hybrid cloud, which is when companies buy hardware and software the old-fashioned way and install it in their data centers but set it up so that it can tap into IBM's cloud (hosted elsewhere) if they need more storage.
IBM also does well in the "private cloud," which is when companies remodel their data centers with hardware and software to mimic the big internet companies, which are are fast and efficient.
There are wise investors, such as Warren Buffett, who argue that share buybacks are a rational way for companies to dispose of idle cash. Mr Buffett has made a lot of money from his stake in IBM over a period where its profit margins have been falling and it has been struggling to find a new business model. Like many troubled behemoths, it has kept shareholders happy by buying back its own shares. Between 2004 and 2013 IBM spent $116bn in buybacks, which accounted for 92 per cent of its profits, according to a Brookings paper. ...
On a company-by-company basis, Mr Buffett has a point. But Larry Fink, the head of BlackRock — the largest asset manager in the world with a $4.65tn portfolio — has a better one. In a letter to 500 S&P chief executives this month, Mr Fink accused America’s business leaders of eating their own seed corn.
Their obsession with short-termism would come at the expense of the future, he said. “More and more corporate leaders have responded with actions that can deliver immediate returns to shareholders . . . while underinvesting in innovation, skilled workforces or essential capital expenditures necessary to sustain long-term growth,” he wrote.
Most chief executives, of course, won’t be around to take the blame. In the meantime they are making hay at society’s expense. Anything up to 90 per cent of CEO remuneration comes from equity-linked pay. Under remarkably lax Securities and Exchange Commission regulations companies can choose when and by how much to boost their executives’ rewards with the timing of their buybacks.
Head to Florida to tie the knot at the over-the-top destination or celebrate an important anniversary or indulge co-workers and team members to celebrate your company’s extraordinary milestone at the private island! The $250,000 package will pamper the privileged guests for three full days with decadent fine dining, award-winning service, and luxury accommodations, as the resort’s dedicated team of specialists will ensure that all preparations are flawlessly executed.
“You’re looking at a universe of over 1,800 billionaires who are starting to become members of this club of collectors of the most unique and incredible real estate in the world,” Dan Conn, chief executive officer of Christie’s International Real Estate, said in a telephone interview. “It’s something they’ll hold onto for a lifetime, the same way they’ll hold onto a Picasso or a Warhol or any number of the great pieces of art we’ve sold over the years.”
Why should Japanese readers care about the inner workings of IBM? They should care because IBM is a huge information technology supplier to Japanese industry and government. They should care because IBM Japan is a large employer with thousands of Japanese workers, most of them highly-paid. They should care because, of the American multinationals, IBM has always been the most like a Japanese company with strong corporate discipline and lifetime employment. Only IBM chose Japanese managers to run its subsidiary, making it not just IBM’s office in Japan but also Japan’s office at IBM.
But times have changed. IBM no longer offers its workers lifetime employment. And many other aspects of the company have changed, too. Some of these changes have been in response to economic forces probably beyond IBM’s control, but others can be traced directly to IBM management abandoning the principles under which the company was run for many decades.
IBM is a very different company today from what it was 10 or 20 years ago. That’s what this book is all about — how IBM has changed and why. It is not a happy story but it is an important one, because IBM is a bellwether for all its peers — peers that include big Japanese companies, too.
IBM has lost its way. This book explains how that happened and why. And while IBM is nominally an American company, the impact of this change is felt everywhere IBM does business, including Japan.
IBM, Apple and Japan Post Group, a giant postal service, bank and insurer, declared on Thursday that they were joining to deliver a new technology service to the fast-growing market of older Japanese adults. The service involves equipping Japan’s silver generation with iPads loaded with software apps to help them communicate with family and friends, monitor their health, and buy goods and services. ...
IBM is engaged in a footrace. It is trying to accelerate a strategic transition to depend more on new businesses like data analytics, cloud computing and specialized mobile apps, and the Japan Post project involves all those, as does its partnership with Apple.
Virginia M. Rometty, IBM’s chief executive, observed that the joint work with Apple had so far created 22 enterprise apps in 11 industries, and the app count should reach 100 by the end of this year. The Japan Post project, she said, “builds on a remarkable partnership.” The message: The new stuff is going gangbusters.
Pros: They make you think you are important to them.
Cons: They deceive the employee into thinking they are getting a fair wage for their services, when, in fact they are well below the current job scale.
Advice to Management: Become more employee centric in order to boost loyalty and confidence, like IBM used to be in past years.
Pros: IBM has a strong historical culture, abide by strong values, truly manage gender equality and is a proud organization that has a great set of products and services in practically all IT areas.
Advice to Management: It's a big challenge for local management to steer this big ship from so many icebergs. The management team need to focus on:
Advice to Management:
Pros: I can't speak for most IBM offices, as I've heard that your IBM experience depends on the culture of your office and how good your managers are at shielding you from all the process and bureaucracy. In that respect, I have nothing but admiration for my managers. My coworkers were also great. We were an acquisition, so we fought to keep our culture, with more success than I anticipated.
Advice to Management:
Pros: IBM has the culture and the people that allowed SIGNIFICANT advanced to semiconductor IC technology over the years to the point we are now (2015) manufacturing the most sophisticated high performance ICs ever made by mankind.
Cons: IBM's ICs are so high end and so expensive that IBM priced itself out of the OEM market. IBM Microelectronics' main customer, IBM server group (mid- and high-end servers) sells only thousands of units, not the millions of units of game consoles, for example, that are sold. The resultant money pit that IBM Microelectronic became led to persistent layoffs or threats of layoffs that has decimated the populated of IBM's 300mm fab.
Advice to Management:
Nowadays no one cares if it is not right nor fair. Fairness is a quaint concept in today's economy. The question is: Is IBM breaking any laws? And not a single lawyer or news organization has been able to prove that IBM is breaking laws. So IBM employees only have two choices:
They are also being given all of the assignments that are more visible and they are being given extensive travel budgets and not being expected to work once they get to events. Basically they're coming in and thinking they have celebrity status which is backed up by their executives who are too afraid to go against their Senior VP parents.
The even bigger insult is that each of these "useless leaders" are now being tagged to the senior staff in our PBCs and we are measured on the work we're doing FOR them. The Board of Directors needs to clean house and bring in new proven leaders not people based on their age bracket. Get rid of these lazy non-loyal millennials before they spread a cancer that can't be stopped. -Disappointed and discouraged-
Doesn't IBM have anything progressive to tout (see :tape drives and mainframes)? The brand names (Tivoli, Lotus, Rational, WebSphere) had to be abandoned because of the bad will now associated with all of them. The Portal Server and 'SmartCloud' product names are now dropped because it stands for crap (see: CIA loss and embarrassment). APM is actually the Tivoli ITCAM stack, which customers hated and is horrible bloat ware and proprietary. So IBM renames all this to make it look 'new' and associates it with 'cloud revenue' even though it's nothing of the sort.
Too bad they don't think this hard about how to be innovative, instead of spending the brain power on deception and fraud (see: lawsuits about the hardware sale). Hey, I know — IBM execs — here's an idea: THINK. Nothing new here in the IBM product space, move along now. -ShipGoingDown-
True. But, The IBM BOD is a big, big part of the leadership and accountability issue at IBM. They are not young themselves. They execute even older. They are not leaders themselves anymore despite their so-called qualified lofty titles and experience. None of them should be on the present IBM Board of Directors. They are near bottom of the executive barrel. Notice how many Indian, Chinese, Russian, and Brazilian IBM directors there are? Is there ONE? -Anonymous-
"Some conveniently forget that IBM struggled and stumbled badly for its first several years in the cloud business, which it ran under a variety of names. Big Blue struggled with cloud because — like the PC — when dealing with a low margin business IBM does not know how to operate in that mode. Buying Softlayer got IBM back into the cloud business. Softlayer, not IBM, knew how to do cloud computing."
I was hoping to get a reduced ISAP (13 week severance) after 90 days, but I won't make it that long. This is making me sick, and I may simply retire; which is what management wants. I know IBM owes me nothing but my paycheck and my hard-earned pension. In truth, I would have welcomed the RA, as opposed to this. Sadly, I'm not sure a Union can save IBM. I must believe there is life after IBM, but at this moment, I'm struggling to see it. -Anonymous in S&D-
If you just look at the numbers, they are saying H1B Visa Holders are less valuable than Band 06's. Meanwhile, IBM is laying off Band 08's to Band 10's, and replacing these higher-skilled workers with lower skilled workers to reduce contract costs and win bids. -H1B Sham-
How long can IBM afford to pay those high dividends when the company is failing so miserably? More financial engineering and smoke and mirrors. How can IBM ignore the obvious horrible morale in this company?
Second quarter RAs should start soon, probably after this latest appeasement and distraction, so buckle up folks. Did we get any protesters to the stockholders meeting today? Every employee should see this as another slap in the face and be motivated to join the Alliance and vote down the CEO and company on glassdoor.com anonymously. Take action, fight back. This is your company's war against YOU. -LowMorale-
You don't understand why? Let me tell you why. Because there would be a stampede that same day. Don't you see that people are leaving IBM in droves, with or without incentives? Those who can (i.e. those who still have some reasonable value on the job market) are leaving, or at a minimum are seriously thinking about leaving. The majority of those who stay are either pathetic "yes persons", or poor souls whom the company has rendered unemployable, by committing them to years and years of chores that have no value whatsoever out of the IBM machinery. -LeftWithoutAPackage-
There are HUNDREDS of Manpower assistants working as IBM contractors in Malaysia. And then there is the newly established hub of assistants in Costa Rica. Soon the only on-site admin support will be for top VPs. Everyone else can scramble to get clerical but unfathomable tasks accomplished. We have assorted reasons for staying in this Walmart; others of us are looking for better jobs in a disappearing field. -Anonymous-
A product failed during hands-on customer demos and it was found to be unstable. Marketing had the upper hand and it was months till the problems visibly manifested themselves via customer complaints. IBM Cloud wise, the 9. intranet itself is not secure; the former CISO knew this and stated such in conferences. There is a reason why the CIO organization is referred to as the Clueless Incompetent Organization. -aon-
Your manager has to deactivate your access so the security strip or chip doesn't allow IBM access once you're gone anyhow. Then the badge is just plastic photo identification. IBM still keeps your employee number for you even when you're gone. So, yes, why can't your manager just do this? If you're retirement or Quarter Century Club eligible don't you get to keep an IBM badge?
Oh, forgot, stupid me; IBM doesn't want to give you any benefit when you leave for anything and IBM managers don't trust ANY resource: present or ex. And some just might like the power trip of stripping you of the badge by surrendering it. -Anonymous-
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